One hundred questions of importance to the conservation of global biological diversity
Sutherland, W.J.; Adams, W.M.; Aronson, R.B.; Aveling, R.; Blackburn, T.M.; Broad, S.; Ceballos, G.; Cote, I.M.; Cowling, R.M.; Da Fonseca, G.A.B.; Dinerstein, E.; Ferraro, P.J.; Fleishman, E.; Gascon, C.; Hunter Jr., M.; Hutton, J.; Kareiva, P.; Kuria, A.; MacDonald, D.W.; MacKinnon, K.; Madgwick, F.J.; Mascia, M.B.; McNeely, J.; Milner-Gulland, E.J.; Moon, S.; Morley, C.G.; Nelson, S.; Osborn, D.; Pai, M.; Parsons, E.C.M.; Peck, L.S.; Possingham, H.; Prior, S.V.; Pullin, A.S.; Rands, M.R.W.; Ranganathan, J.; Redford, K.H.; Rodriguez, J.P.; Seymour, F.; Sobel, J.; Sodhi, N.S.; Stott, A.; Vance-Borland, K.; Watkinson, A.R.
Conservation Biology
We identified 100 scientific questions that, if answered, would have the greatest impact on conservation practice and policy. Representatives from 21 international organizations, regional sections and working groups of the Society for Conservation Biology, and 12 academics, from all continents except Antarctica, compiled 2291 questions of relevance to conservation of biological diversity worldwide. The questions were gathered from 761 individuals through workshops, email requests, and discussions. Voting by email to short-list questions, followed by a 2-day workshop, was used to derive the final list of 100 questions. Most of the final questions were derived through a process of modification and combination as the workshop progressed. The questions are divided into 12 sections: ecosystem functions and services, climate change, technological change, protected areas, ecosystem management and restoration, terrestrial ecosystems, marine ecosystems, freshwater ecosystems, species management, organizational systems and processes, societal context and change, and impacts of conservation interventions. We anticipate that these questions will help identify new directions for researchers and assist funders in directing funds. © 2009 Society for Conservation Biology.
ecosystem management; environmental policy; environmental restoration; nature conservation; prioritization; technological change
Full Citation
Sutherland, W.J., Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom; Adams, W.M., Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, Cambridge CB2 3EN, United Kingdom; Aronson, R.B., International Society for Reef Studies, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901, United States; Aveling, R., Fauna and Flora International, Jupiter House, Station Road, Cambridge CB1 2JD, United Kingdom; Blackburn, T.M., Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, United Kingdom; Broad, S., Traffic International, 219a Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, United Kingdom; Ceballos, G., SCB Austral and Neotropical Americas Section, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-275, Mexico, D.F. 04510, Mexico; CÔtÉ, I.M., Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada; Cowling, R.M., Department of Botany, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa; Da Fonseca, G.A.B., GEF Secretariat, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN G6-602, Washington, DC 20433, United States; Dinerstein, E., World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street NW, Washington, DC 20037, United States; Ferraro, P.J., Department of Economics, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 3992, Atlanta, GA 30302-3992, United States; Fleishman, E., SCB North America Section, National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, 735 State Street Suite 300, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, United States; Gascon, C., Conservation International, Office of Programs and Science, 2011 Crystal Drive Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, United States; Hunter Jr., M., Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, United States; Hutton, J., UNEP-WCMC, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, United Kingdom; Kareiva, P., Nature Conservancy, 4722 Latona Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98105, United States; Kuria, A., Tropical Biology Association, Nature Kenya, P.O. Box 44486, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya; MacDonald, D.W., Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, University of Oxford, Tubney House, Abingdon Road, Tubney, Oxon OX13 5QL, United Kingdom; MacKinnon, K., Environment Department, World Bank, 1818 H Street, Washington, DC 20433, United States; Madgwick, F.J., Wetlands International, P.O. Box 471, 6700 AL Wageningen, Netherlands; Mascia, M.B., SCB Social Science Working Group, World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street NW, Washington, DC 20037, United States; McNeely, J., IUCN, Rue Mauverney 28, Gland 1196, Switzerland; Milner-Gulland, E.J., Imperial College London, Division of Biology, Silwood Park Campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, United Kingdom; Moon, S., Cambridge Conservation Initiative, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom; Morley, C.G., SCB Australasia Section, Department of Conservation, Kauri Coast Area Office, 150 Colville Road, RD7, Dargaville 0377, New Zealand; Nelson, S., Darwin Initiative Secretariat, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Area 3D, Nobel House, 17 Smith Square, London SW1P 3JR, United Kingdom; Osborn, D., Natural Environment Research Council, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon SN2 1EU, United Kingdom; Pai, M., SCB Asia Section, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Clemson University, 261 Lehotsky Hall, Clemson, SC 29634, United States; Parsons, E.C.M., SCB Marine Section, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, MSN 5F2, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, United States; Peck, L.S., British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, United Kingdom; Possingham, H., University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia; Prior, S.V., Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom; Pullin, A.S., SCB Europe Section, School of the Environment and Natural Resources, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, United Kingdom; Rands, M.R.W., BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge CB3 0NA, United Kingdom, Cambridge Conservation Initiative, Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1AG, United Kingdom; Ranganathan, J., Science and Research, World Resources Institute, 10 G Street NE, Washington, DC 20002, United States; Redford, K.H., WCS Institute, Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10460, United States; Rodriguez, J.P., Centro de Ecología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apdo. 20632, Caracas 1020-A, Venezuela; Seymour, F., Jalan Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Situ Gede, Bogor Barat 16115, Indonesia; Sobel, J., Ocean Conservancy, 1300 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036, United States; Sodhi, N.S., Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543, Singapore, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States; Stott, A., Natural Environment Science Division, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 1/05 Temple Quay House, Bristol BS1 6EB, United Kingdom, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), Monkstone House, City Road, Peterborough PE1 1JY, United Kingdom; Vance-Borland, K., SCB Freshwater Working Group, Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, United States; Watkinson, A.R., Living with Environmental Change, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom

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